ISSN 1000-1239 CN 11-1777/TP

计算机研究与发展 ›› 2016, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (12): 2694-2707.doi: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.2016.20160626

• 其他应用技术 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于公交车轨迹数据的道路GPS环境友好性评估

马连韬1,2,4,王亚沙1,3,4,彭广举1,2,赵宇昕1,2,何远舵1,2,高敬月1,2   

  1. 1(高可信软件技术教育部重点实验室(北京大学) 北京 100871); 2(北京大学信息科学技术学院 北京 100871); 3(软件工程国家工程研究中心(北京大学) 北京 100871); 4(北京大学(天津滨海)新一代信息技术研究院 天津 300450) (malt@pku.edu.cn)
  • 出版日期: 2016-12-01
  • 基金资助: 
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(91546203)

Evaluation of GPS-Environment Friendliness of Roads Based on Bus Trajectory Data

Ma Liantao1,2,4, Wang Yasha1,3,4, Peng Guangju1,2, Zhao Yuxin1,2, He Yuanduo1,2, Gao Jingyue1,2   

  1. 1(Key Laboratory of High Confidence Software Technologies (Peking University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871); 2(School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871); 3(National Engineering Research Center of Software Engineering (Peking University), Beijing 100871); 4(Beida (Binhai) Information Research, Tianjin 300450)
  • Online: 2016-12-01

摘要: GPS是应用最为广泛的室外定位系统,随着技术的发展精度不断提升.然而城市中,由于GPS卫星信号被建筑遮挡,仍然可能产生较大的多径误差.此类误差已称为城市GPS定位误差的主要成分.评估城市道路中环境对GPS精度的负面影响,即环境的GPS友好度,将有助于对不同地段GPS的误差范围进行预判,从而提升位置服务相关应用的用户体验,并为理解环境特征与多径误差的关系,确定在何处部署辅助定位的设备提供支持.为此,提出了1种通过处理和分析海量公交车GPS轨迹历史数据,从而评估城市主要路段的环境友好性的方法.该方法充分利用公交车运行线路固定的特点,大幅提升数据处理的效率;针对路网数据可能存在的错误,提出了容错性的方案;利用相同车辆及相同路段在GPS误差上存在的内在关联,对缺失数据进行补全;并充分考虑到不同质量GPS端设备对环境友好性评估的影响,确定了基于端设备质量加权的评估计算策略.利用成都市二环内的4869辆公交车1个月的数据,对共计5648个不同路段的环境友好性进行了评估,并通过卫星地图和街景照片,分析验证了方法结果的合理性.

关键词: 位置服务, GPS误差, 数据分析, 地图匹配, 智慧城市

Abstract: GPS is the most widely-used outdoor positioning system. With the advance of relevant technologies, positioning accuracy of GPS has been increasing continuously. However, as the GPS satellite signal can be blocked by buildings, multi-path error becomes the major cause of positioning error in a city. Evaluating the negative effects of GPS error on urban environments, which is referred as environment friendliness in this paper, will help the prediction of GPS error range in different road segments. Furthermore, it enhances user experiences of location-based services, reveals the relationship between environmental characteristics and multi-path error, and helps to determine where to deploy supplementary positioning devices. In this paper, we have proposed an urban road friendliness evaluation (URFE) approach, based on the processing and analyzing of massive historical bus GPS trajectory data. Specifically, URFE first takes full advantage of the unique features of fixed bus routes to significantly improve the efficiency of data processing. Then, it adopts a fault-tolerant method to deal with the possible errors of street maps; Finally, URFE completes the missing data by utilizing the inherent relationship between GPS errors of the same cars and roads, and utilizes an evaluation strategy by taking the influence of different GPS terminal devices’ qualities into account. Using the bus trajectory data within the second ring road of Chengdu during one month, we evaluate the effectiveness of our approach. Environments friendliness of 5648 different road segments has been evaluated, whose rationality has been verified by checking real satellite maps and street views.

Key words: location based service, GPS positioning error, data analysis, map matching, smart city

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