ISSN 1000-1239 CN 11-1777/TP

计算机研究与发展 ›› 2017, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (5): 907-924.doi: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.2017.20160941

• 网络技术 •    下一篇

边缘计算:万物互联时代新型计算模型

施巍松1,孙辉2,曹杰1,张权1,刘伟2   

  1. 1(韦恩州立大学计算机科学系 美国底特律 48202); 2(安徽大学计算机科学与技术学院 合肥 230601) (weisong@wayne.edu)
  • 出版日期: 2017-05-01
  • 基金资助: 
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(61572001);安徽大学2016年博士科研启动经费项目(J01003214)

Edge Computing—An Emerging Computing Model for the Internet of Everything Era

Shi Weisong1, Sun Hui2, Cao Jie1, Zhang Quan1, Liu Wei2   

  1. 1(Department of Computer Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, USA 48202); 2(School of Computer Science and Technology, Anhui University, Hefei 230601)
  • Online: 2017-05-01

摘要: 随着物联网的快速发展和4G/5G无线网络的普及,万物互联的时代已经到来,网络边缘设备数量的迅速增加,使得该类设备所产生的数据已达到泽字节(ZB)级别.以云计算模型为核心的集中式大数据处理时代,其关键技术已经不能高效处理边缘设备所产生的数据,主要表现在:1)线性增长的集中式云计算能力无法匹配爆炸式增长的海量边缘数据;2)从网络边缘设备传输海量数据到云中心致使网络传输带宽的负载量急剧增加,造成较长的网络延迟;3)网络边缘数据涉及个人隐私,使得隐私安全问题变得尤为突出;4)有限电能的网络边缘设备传输数据到云中心消耗较大电能.为此,以边缘计算模型为核心的面向网络边缘设备所产生海量数据计算的边缘式大数据处理应运而生,其与现有以云计算模型为核心的集中式大数据处理相结合,即二者相辅相成,应用于云中心和网络边缘端的大数据处理,较好地解决了万物互联时代大数据处理中所存在的上述问题.边缘计算中的“边缘”是个相对的概念,指从数据源到云计算中心数据路径之间的任意计算资源和网络资源.边缘计算的基本理念是将计算任务在接近数据源的计算资源上运行.首先系统地介绍边缘计算的概念和原理;其次,通过现有研究工作为案例(即云计算任务迁移、视频分析、智能家居、智慧城市、智能交通以及协同边缘),实例化边缘计算的概念;最后,提出边缘计算领域所存在的挑战.该文希望能让学界和产业界了解和关注边缘计算,并能够启发更多的学者开展边缘式大数据处理时代边缘计算模型的研究.

关键词: 边缘计算, 云计算, 万物互联, 智能家居和城市, 协同边缘

Abstract: With the proliferation of Internet of things (IoT) and the burgeoning of 4G/5G network, we have seen the dawning of the IoE (Internet of everything) era, where there will be a huge volume of data generated by things that are immersed in our daily life, and hundreds of applications will be deployed at the edge to consume these data. Cloud computing as the de facto centralized big data processing platform is not efficient enough to support these applications emerging in IoE era, i.e., 1) the computing capacity available in the centralized cloud cannot keep up with the explosive growing computational needs of massive data generated at the edge of the network; 2) longer user-perceived latency caused by the data movement between the edge and the cloud;3) privacy and security concerns from data owners in the edge; 4) energy constraints of edge devices. These issues in the centralized big data processing era have pushed the horizon of a new computing paradigm, edge computing, which calls for processing the data at the edge of the network. Leveraging the power of cloud computing, edge computing has the potential to address the limitation of computing capability, the concerns of response time requirement, bandwidth cost saving, data safety and privacy, as well as battery life constraint. “Edge” in edge computing is defined as any computing and network resources along the path between data sources and cloud data centers. In this paper, we introduce the definition of edge computing, followed by several case studies, ranging from cloud offloading to smart home and city, as well as collaborative edge to materialize the concept of edge computing. Finally, we present several challenges and opportunities in the field of edge computing, and hope this paper will gain attention from the community and inspire more research in this direction.

Key words: edge computing, cloud computing, Internet of everything (IoE), smart home and city, collaborative edge

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