ISSN 1000-1239 CN 11-1777/TP

计算机研究与发展 ›› 2018, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (10): 2208-2218.doi: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.2018.20180439

所属专题: 2018分布式安全与区块链技术研究专题

• 信息安全 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于沙普利值计算的区块链中PoS共识机制的改进

刘怡然1,柯俊明1,蒋瀚2,宋祥福1   

  1. 1(山东大学计算机科学与技术学院 济南 250000);2(山东大学软件学院 济南 250000) (sdnulyr@126.com)
  • 出版日期: 2018-10-01
  • 基金资助: 
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(61632020);国家自然科学基金项目(61572294,61602287);山东省自然科学基金项目(ZR2017MF021);山东省重点研发计划(2018GGX101037);山东省科技重大创新工程项目(2018CXGC0702);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(2017JC019);山东省高等学校科学技术计划项目(J15LN16)

Improvement of the PoS Consensus Mechanism in Blockchain Based on Shapley Value

Liu Yiran1, Ke Junming1, Jiang Han2, Song Xiangfu1   

  1. 1(School of Computer Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan 250000);2(Software College, Shandong University, Jinan 250000)
  • Online: 2018-10-01

摘要: 区块链由于其去中心化、防篡改、可验证等显著特点,引起人们的普遍关注. 其中,去中心化的共识机制在区块链中尤为关键.目前常见的典型共识机制有工作量证明机制(proof of work, PoW)、权益证明机制(proof of stake, PoS)和行动证明机制(proof of activity, PoA)等.但是这些共识机制几乎没有对参与生成区块节点的收益分配给出一种具体的方案.基于博弈论中计算沙普利值的原理对权益证明机制(PoS)中的收益分配方式进行改进,使得PoS机制中参与生成区块的节点的收益分配更加公平合理,改善现在区块链中的社会分层现象,大幅度提高新加入的小节点获得收益的可能性,抵制系统中心化的趋势.此外还将该思想应用到了Ouroboros协议中,对Ouroboros协议的收益分配算法进行了改进,使其满足存活性和持久性.

关键词: 权益证明机制, 沙普利值, 收益分配, Ouroboros协议, 博弈论

Abstract: Blockchain has attracted much attention for its decentralization, tamper-proof, easy to verify and other notable advantages. But for the blockchain, its most fundamental attribute is decentralization. This requires a good consensus mechanism to be established. At present, the common consensus mechanisms include the proof-of-work (PoW) consensus mechanism, the proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus mechanism, the proof-of-activity (PoA) consensus mechanism, and so on. However, these consensus mechanisms didn’t give a specific scheme for the reward distribution of participating nodes. Based on the principle of calculating Shapley value in Game Theory, this paper improves the distribution of reward in the mechanism of the PoS consensus mechanism, makes the reward distribution of the nodes participated in the generated block in the PoS mechanism more fair and reasonable, and it can also reverse the social stratification in the blockchain, thus greatly improving the possibility of the new small node gaining the benefit. In addtion, we apply the same ideas in the Ouroboros protocol to improve its revenue distribution algorithm so that it satisfies survivability and durability.

Key words: proof-of-stake, Shapley value, reward distribution, Ouroboros protocol, game theory

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