ISSN 1000-1239 CN 11-1777/TP

计算机研究与发展 ›› 2019, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (12): 2702-2719.doi: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.2019.20190044

• 系统结构 • 上一篇    下一篇

体系结构模拟器在处理器设计过程中的作用

张乾龙1,2,侯锐3,杨思博4,赵博彦3,张立新1   

  1. 1(中国科学院计算技术研究所 北京 100190);2(中国科学院大学 北京 100049);3(中国科学院信息工程研究所 北京 100093);4(北京大学软件与微电子学院 北京 100871) (zhangqianlong@ict.ac.cn)
  • 出版日期: 2019-12-01
  • 基金资助: 
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFB1000201);国家自然科学基金项目(61771325,61420106013,61702480);中国科学院青年创新促进会项目(2013073);中国科学院前沿科学重点研究项目(QYZDB-SSW-JSC010);国家自然科学基金优秀青年科学基金项目(61522212)

The Role of Architecture Simulators in the Process of CPU Design

Zhang Qianlong1,2, Hou Rui3, Yang Sibo4, Zhao Boyan3, Zhang Lixin1   

  1. 1(Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190);2(University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049);3(Institute of Information Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093);4(School of Software & Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871)
  • Online: 2019-12-01

摘要: 随着摩尔定律趋于终结,处理器性能的提升越来越依赖于处理器微体系结构的优化改良,而处理器微体系结构的优化改良离不开体系结构模拟器的辅助,因此体系结构模拟器在现代和未来的高性能处理器设计中的作用越来越重要.具体地,体系结构模拟器可以辅助进行处理器微结构探索、芯片逻辑验证、硅后验证环境搭建、系统软件开发等工作.首先,介绍了开源模拟器与处理器设计的关系,并指出开源模拟器在辅助进行处理器设计方面的不足,同时对处理器厂商使用模拟器辅助进行处理器设计的方法和经验进行了分析总结.其次,对用于处理器微结构优化和改进的性能模拟器的校准方法进行了总结,然后对模拟器的纵向和横向优化方法进行了总结.最后,对新型异构模拟器进行了总结,并对未来模拟器的发展和基于模拟器进行处理器设计的方法进行了总结和展望.

关键词: 处理器设计, 模拟器, 性能评估, 性能建模, 高性能计算, 异构模拟器, 模拟器校准, 量化分析

Abstract: As Moore’s law goes to an end, the improvement of CPU performance is increasingly dependent on the optimization and improvement of CPU microarchitecture which heavily relies on the assistance of architecture simulator. Therefore, CPU architecture simulator plays an increasingly important role in the design of high performance CPUs, for example, architecture simulator can be helpful in exploring the CPU microarchitecture, verifying the logic design before actual tape-out, building post-silicon test environment and starting to develop firmware, operating system and hypervisor before CPU is ready. In this paper, we summarize the experience of academia and industrial CPU vendors in developing and using architecture simulators, by which we clarify and summarize the important role of architecture simulators in the CPU design process and how to develop and optimize architecture simulators. First, we introduce the relationship between open source architecture simulators and CPU design, then we summarize and analyze the methodologies and experience of how to do well-known industrial CPU vendors develop and use architecture simulators in the process of CPU design. Second, we summarize the methodologies of how to calibrate and optimize architecture simulators, after that, some suggestions on the design and usage methodology of architecture simulators are put forward. Third, we summarize the scale-up and scale-out optimization methods of architecture simulators and introduce some new architecture simulators. At the end of the paper, we summarize the paper and put forward some problems in developing new architecture simulators.

Key words: CPU design, simulator, performance analysis, performance modeling, high performance computing, heterogeneous simulator, simulator calibration, quantitative analysis

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