ISSN 1000-1239 CN 11-1777/TP

计算机研究与发展 ›› 2018, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (11): 2452-2466.doi: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.2018.20170658

• 信息安全 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于区块链的智能合约技术与应用综述

贺海武1,延安2,陈泽华3   

  1. 1(Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190); 2(College of Information Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024); 3(College of Data Science, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024)
  • 出版日期: 2018-11-01
  • 基金资助: 
    中国科学院百人计划项目(1101002001);国家自然科学基金项目(61402319)

Survey of Smart Contract Technology and Application Based on Blockchain

He Haiwu1, Yan An2, Chen Zehua3   

  1. 1(中国科学院计算机网络信息中心 北京 100190); 2(太原理工大学信息工程学院 太原 030024); 3(太原理工大学大数据学院 太原 030024) (hehaiwu@gmail.com)
  • Online: 2018-11-01

摘要: 随着以比特币为代表的区块链技术的蓬勃发展,区块链技术已经开始逐步超越可编程货币时代而进入智能合约时代.智能合约(smart contract)是一种由事件驱动的、具有状态的代码合约和算法合同,随着区块链技术的深入发展而受到广泛关注和研究.智能合约利用协议和用户接口完成合约过程的所有步骤,允许用户在区块链上实现个性化的代码逻辑.基于区块链的智能合约技术具有去中心化、自治化、可观察、可验证、可信息共享等特点,可以有效构建可编程金融和可编程社会,广泛应用于数字支付、金融资产处置、多重签名合约、云计算、物联网、共享经济等多个领域.首先阐述了智能合约技术的基本概念、全生命周期、基本分类、基本架构、关键技术、发展现状以及智能合约的主要技术平台;然后探讨了智能合约技术的应用场景以及发展中所存在的问题;最后,基于智能合约的理论知识,搭建了以太坊实验环境并开发了一个众筹智能合约系统,旨在为基于区块链的智能合约技术的研究与发展提供参考与借鉴.

关键词: 智能合约, 区块链, 以太坊, 分布式应用, 形式化方法, 众筹合约

Abstract: With the flourishing development of blockchain technology represented by bitcoin, the blockchain technology has moved from the era of programmable currency into the era of smart contract. The smart contract is an event-driven, state-based code contract and algorithm contract, which has been widely concerned and studied with the deep development of blockchain technology. The protocol and user interface are applied to complete all steps of the smart contract process. Smart contract enables users to implement personalized logic on the blockchain. The blockchain-based smart contract technology has the characteristics of de-centralization, autonomy, observability, verifiability and information sharing. It can also be effectively applied to build programmable finance and programmable society, which has been widely used in digital payment, financial asset disposal, multi-signature contract, cloud computing, Internet of things, sharing economy and other fields. The survey describes the basic concepts of smart contract technology, its whole life cycle, basic classification and structure, key technology, the art of the state, as well as its application scenarios and the main technology platforms. Its problems encountered at present are also discussed. Finally, based on the theoretical knowledge of the smart contract, we set up the Ethereum experimental environment and develop a system of crowdsale contract. The survey is aimed at providing helpful guidance and reference for future research of smart contract based on blockchain technology.

Key words: smart contract, blockchain, ethereum, distributed application, formal method, crowdsale contract

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