ISSN 1000-1239 CN 11-1777/TP

计算机研究与发展 ›› 2017, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (10): 2390-2403.doi: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.2017.20170416

• 信息安全 • 上一篇    下一篇

比特币区块链扩容技术研究

喻辉1,张宗洋1,2,刘建伟1   

  1. 1(北京航空航天大学电子信息工程学院 北京 100191); 2(信息安全国家重点实验室(中国科学院信息工程研究所) 北京 100093) (yhsteven@outlook.com)
  • 出版日期: 2017-10-01
  • 基金资助: 
    中国科学院信息工程研究所信息安全国家重点实验室开放课题(2017-MS-02)

Research on Scaling Technology of Bitcoin Blockchain

Yu Hui1, Zhang Zongyang1,2, Liu Jianwei1   

  1. 1(School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191); 2(State Key Laboratory of Information Security (Institute of Information Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences), Beijing 100093)
  • Online: 2017-10-01

摘要: 比特币是中本聪(Nakamoto)于2008年提出的数字货币,它具有去中心化、跨国界和发行总量固定等特性,现在已经成为使用最广泛的数字货币之一.然而,比特币设计初期的一些人为限制,导致现有网络处理交易的速率十分有限,最近交易处理能力已经接近上限,交易确认时间显著增加.这不仅严重影响比特币的使用体验,进而限制使用范围,而且对比特币的设计提出更高的要求.针对比特币所面临的交易处理性能挑战,以提升区块链容量为目标对比特币展开深入研究.首先,分析比特币当前网络状态,根据比特币交易数据,统计交易延迟情况;其次,针对链上扩容方案,分析可行性,研究扩容效果;再次,针对链下扩容方案,分析作用原理,研究扩容效果;最后,分析链上/链下扩容方案优缺点,提出适应社区的可行的比特币扩容路线方案.最新比特币扩容的进展进一步证明了我们结论的正确性.

关键词: 比特币, 区块链, 扩容, 见证隔离, 闪电网络

Abstract: Bitcoin is a crypto currency introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008. It has the features of decentralization, cross-border and fixed total amount and has become one of the most widely used crypto currencies. Due to some initial limitations set by the inventor and the following developers, the transaction throughput of the Bitcoin network is much limited. Recently, the transaction throughput has been close to the maximum limit, and the corresponding transaction confirmation time has been greatly increased. Not only this affects user experiences of Bitcoin and limits its usage, but also this puts forward higher requirements for Bitcoin protocol design. Focusing on the challenges of transaction processing performance, this paper aims to promote blockchain capacity and takes a deep research on Bitcoin protocol. Firstly, we do a research on the current network status of Bitcoin, and analyze the transaction delay according to Bitcoin transaction data. Secondly, we analyze the feasibility and effectiveness of on-chain scaling proposals. Thirdly, we analyze mechanics and effects of off-chain scaling proposals. Finally, we analyze the advantages and disadvantages of on-chain/off-chain scaling proposals, and propose a scaling roadmap which meets the community requirements. The recent progress on the Bitcoin scaling shows the correctness of our proposals.

Key words: Bitcoin, blockchain, scaling, segregated witness, lightning network

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