ISSN 1000-1239 CN 11-1777/TP

计算机研究与发展 ›› 2019, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (1): 103-130.doi: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.2019.20180769

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  1. (东南大学计算机科学与工程学院 南京 211189) (
  • 出版日期: 2019-01-01
  • 基金资助: 

Anonymous Communication and Darknet: A Survey

Luo Junzhou, Yang Ming, Ling Zhen, Wu Wenjia, Gu Xiaodan   

  1. (School of Computer Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189)
  • Online: 2019-01-01

摘要: 匿名通信系统是一种建立在Internet之上综合利用数据转发、内容加密、流量混淆等多种技术隐藏通信实体关系和内容的覆盖网络.由于匿名通信主体难以被追踪定位,匿名通信网络中各类匿名滥用问题层出不穷,而其中隐藏服务机制更是被用于构建充斥着各种非法活动的暗网,给社会和人们带来了巨大的危害和影响.鉴于目前在匿名通信与暗网领域尚缺乏全面、深入的技术剖析与研究综述,重点对两者的基本概念及相互关系进行阐述,并围绕Tor,I2P,Freenet,ZeroNet这4种主流暗网形态,详细介绍了匿名通信的工作原理,以及匿名接入、匿名路由和暗网服务三大关键技术.在此基础上,分析总结了匿名通信攻击与防御技术的研究现状,并介绍了暗网治理方面的相关研究工作.最后,对下一代匿名通信系统的发展趋势进行展望,并初步探讨了暗网治理面临的挑战和思路.

关键词: 匿名通信, 暗网, 隐藏服务, 攻防技术, 暗网治理

Abstract: An anonymous communication system is an overlay network built on top of the Internet that integratedly uses various anonymous technologies such as data forwarding, content encryption and traffic obfuscation to conceal the relationships between the communication entities and hide their communication content from being revealed. Since it is quite difficult to traceback and locate the communication entities, considerable abuse problems have sprung up. Specifically, the hidden services of anonymous network are most often abusively used to establish darknets where diverse illegal activities take place, bringing huge harm to the individuals and society. At present, it lacks comprehensive and deep technical analysis and research survey in the field of anonymous communication system and darknet study. Based on the status quo, this paper first elaborates on the basic concepts of the two terms and their relationships, then continues to demonstrate the work mechanisms and three key technologies of the anonymous communication system in detail including anonymous access, anonymous routing and darknet services with an exemplification of the four mainstream darknets, which are Tor, I2P, Freenet and ZeroNet. On this basis, the paper summarizes the state-of-the-art anonymous communication attacks and defense technology, and introduces the research work on current darknet governance as well. Finally, the developing trend of the next generation anonymous communication system is prospected, and the challenges of the darknet governance and relevant countermeasures are also discussed.

Key words: anonymous communication, darknet, hidden services, attack and defense technologies, darknet governance