ISSN 1000-1239 CN 11-1777/TP

计算机研究与发展 ›› 2021, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (7): 1518-1532.doi: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.2021.20200690

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  1. 1(清华大学计算机科学与技术系 北京 100083);2(华东师范大学计算机科学与技术学院 上海 200062);3(重庆大学计算机学院 重庆 400044);4(香港城市大学计算机系 香港 999077) (
  • 出版日期: 2021-07-01
  • 基金资助: 

Architecture and Technologies of Flash Memory Based Solid State Drives

Gao Congming1, Shi Liang2, Liu Kai3, Xue Chun4, Shu Jiwu1   

  1. 1(Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100083);2(School of Computer Science and Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062);3(College of Computer Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044);4(Department of Computer Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hongkong 999077)
  • Online: 2021-07-01
  • Supported by: 
    This work was supported by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2020M680568, 2021T140376) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (62072177).

摘要: 闪存固态硬盘凭借其高性能、低功耗、非易失等特点已经被广泛应用于个人电脑、数据中心和云存储服务等.近10年来,随着制程工艺和微电子技术的发展,闪存固态硬盘的特性发生了显著的变化.首先介绍了闪存存储单元的基本结构和存储原理.然后讨论了闪存固态硬盘的多项控制器关键技术,包括缓存设备、地址转换层、垃圾回收、数据分配、磨损均衡以及纠错码等.这些关键技术将支撑闪存固态硬盘的正常运作.此外,探讨了闪存固态硬盘的并行结构,并分析了闪存固态硬盘并行性利用的限制条件以及最新的并行性优化工作.接着,分析了3D闪存固态硬盘的发展和堆叠式结构,并针对3D固态硬盘的性能和寿命优化工作进行了归纳和分析,提出了现有3D固态硬盘性能和寿命优化工作的不足.最后,总结了当前闪存固态硬盘的现状,并提出可能的未来研究方向.

关键词: 闪存, 固态硬盘, 缓冲区, 闪存转换层, 并行性, 3D固态硬盘

Abstract: Flash memory based solid state drives (SSDs) are widely deployed in personal computers, data centers, and cloud storages given their well identified advantages, such as high performance, low power consumption and non-volatile property. In recent years, with the development of process technology and micro electronic technology, the features of SSDs are greatly changed. First, detailed storage mechanism of flash cell is introduced, including architecture of flash cell and flash block, programming method, and basic operation of SSDs. Then, several SSD controller key technologies are presented, including buffer device, flash translation layer, garbage collection, data allocation, wear leveling and error correction code. These technologies are used to well support normal operation of SSDs. Additionally, the parallel architecture of SSDs which is used to boost the performance of SSDs, is discussed and related constraints are also presented while several previous works on parallelism exploration are analyzed. Next, since the scaling of SSD has evolved from planar (2D) to 3D stacking, 3D SSD is introduced as a new type of SSDs that can provide larger capacity compared with traditional planar SSD. In this paper, the characteristics of 3D SSDs’ vertical architecture, performance and lifetime are analyzed. Also, the disadvantages of previous works on 3D SSD performance and lifetime optimizations are discussed. Finally, current state of SSDs is summarized and possible future research works are given.

Key words: flash memory, solid state drives, buffer, flash translation layer, parallelism, 3D solid state drives