ISSN 1000-1239 CN 11-1777/TP

计算机研究与发展

• 系统结构 • 上一篇    下一篇

新型非易失存储研究

沈志荣1 薛 巍1,2 舒继武1,2   

  1. 1(清华大学计算机科学与技术系 北京 100084) 2(清华大学信息科学与技术国家实验室(筹) 北京 100084) (czr10@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn)
  • 出版日期: 2014-02-15

Research on New Non-Volatile Storage

Shen Zhirong1, Xue Wei1,2, and Shu Jiwu1,2   

  1. 1(Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084) 2(Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology (Tsinghua University), Beijing 100084)
  • Online: 2014-02-15

摘要: 近年来,由于处理器性能和存储性能之间的差距不断扩大,存储系统成为计算机整体系统性能提升的瓶颈.随着微电子技术的迅速发展,新型非易失存储器件由于具有非易失、低能耗、良好的可扩展性和抗震等优良特性,得到了学术界和工业界的广泛关注.介绍了4种新型非易失存储器件,分别是STT-RAM,RRAM,PCRAM和FeRAM,对比了其与传统存储器件的性能参数.讨论了目前在存储架构中的不同层面(即缓存层、主存层和外存层)针对这些非易失存储器件的利用所开展的一些探索性工作,并分析了其中针对非易失存储器件的写次数有限、读写性能不均衡等不足所作出的一些策略设计.最后,对新型非易失存储器件的研究现状进行了总结,并提出了未来可能的发展方向.

关键词: 非易失存储, PCRAM, STT-RAM, 缓存, 主存, 外存

Abstract: Recently, the performance gap between CPU and storage system has been continually increasing, resulting in the consequence that the storage system becomes the bottleneck of performance improvement of the overall computer systems. With the rapid development of microelectronics technology, new non-volatile storage devices that have the metrics of non-volatility, low power consumption, good scalability and shock resistance, are attracting a great attention from academia and industry. This paper introduces several new non-volatile storage devices (i.e., STT-RAM, RRAM, PCRAM and FeRAM) and compares their performance characteristics with those of traditional storage devices. We further discuss the current exploratory works that seek for lower power consumption, higher reliability and better scalability by applying the new non-volatile storage devices to the current three levels of storage architecture (i.e., cache-level, main-memory-level and external-storage-level). A detailed analysis is then presented which focuses on some strategies to mitigate the inherent drawbacks of the new non-volatile storage devices in the application, such as the limited write endurance and the performance imbalance between the read and write operations. Finally, a panoramic summary is given and the possible future development tendencies are discussed.

Key words: non-volatile storage, PCRAM, STT-RAM, cache, main memory, external storage