ISSN 1000-1239 CN 11-1777/TP

计算机研究与发展 ›› 2019, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (12): 2671-2683.doi: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.2019.20190053

• 信息安全 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于门限密码方案的共识机制

王缵1,2,4,田有亮1,2,4,岳朝跃1,3,4,张铎1,2,3,4   

  1. 1(贵州省公共大数据重点实验室(贵州大学) 贵阳 550025);2(贵州大学计算机科学与技术学院 贵阳 550025);3(贵州大学数学与统计学院 贵阳 550025);4(贵州大学密码学与数据安全研究所 贵阳 550025) (vinheres@163.com)
  • 出版日期: 2019-12-01
  • 基金资助: 
    国家自然科学基金项目(U1836205, 61662009, 61772008);贵州省教育厅科技拔尖人才基金项目(黔教合KY字[2016]060);贵州省科技重大专项计划项目(20183001);贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合平台人才[2017]5788);教育部-中国移动科研基金项目(MCM20170401);贵州大学培育项目(黔科合平台人才[2017]5788);贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合基础[2019]1098);贵州省科学技术基金项目(黔科合J字[2008]2121)

Consensus Mechanism Based on Threshold Cryptography Scheme

Wang Zuan1,2,4, Tian Youliang1,2,4, Yue Chaoyue1,3,4, Zhang Duo1,2,3,4   

  1. 1(Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Public Big Data (Guizhou University), Guiyang 550025);2(College of Computer Science & Technology, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025);3(College of Mathematics and Statistics, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025);4(Institute of Cryptography & Data Security, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025)
  • Online: 2019-12-01

摘要: 针对比特币的PoW(proof of work)共识机制中资源消耗巨大、系统性能存在瓶颈和“公地悲剧”问题,从博弈论的角度分析了比特币系统后期只有交易费奖励所带来的“公地悲剧”现象,提出了基于门限密码方案的共识机制(a consensus mechanism based on threshold cryptography, TCCM).首先,新共识协议引入了节点保证金的思想,提出了一种基于门限群签名理论的保证金模型.该模型既能够确保保证金的安全,又为节点诚实地记账提供保障.其次,利用门限加密的思想构造了记账权竞价模型来产生区块链记账节点,这能够保证记账权竞价环境的公平性和记账节点产生的随机性.同时,在原有的区块奖励基础上,设计了新的激励机制,使得更多的节点能够参与共识的全过程.最后,安全性和性能分析结果表明,该共识机制既有效地降低了资源消耗,又提高了交易处理效率,使得整个区块链系统变得更加安全可靠.

关键词: 区块链, PoW共识机制, 公地悲剧, 门限密码, 保证金模型

Abstract: Aiming at the huge resource consumption, the bottleneck of the system performance and “tragedy of the commons” in the PoW(proof of work) consensus mechanism of bitcoin, we analyze the “tragedy of the commons” caused by only transaction fees rewarding in the later stage of the bitcoin system from the perspective of game theory and propose a consensus mechanism based on threshold cryptography (TCCM) in this paper. Firstly, the new consensus protocol introduces the idea of margin, and proposes a margin model based on threshold group signature theory. The model not only ensures the security of the margin, but also provides a guarantee for the node to honestly produce the block. Secondly, a bidding model of the right of accounting is also constructed using the idea of threshold encryption to generate a node that can produce the block. This model can guarantee the fairness of the bidding model environment and select the accounting node randomly. Then, a new incentive mechanism is redesigned based on the original block rewards so that more nodes can participate in the consensus process. Finally, the results of security and performance analysis show that TCCM not only effectively reduces the huge resource consumption, but also improves the transaction processing efficiency and makes the whole blockchain system more secure.

Key words: blockchain, PoW consensus mechanism, tragedy of the commons, threshold cryptography, margin model

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