ISSN 1000-1239 CN 11-1777/TP

计算机研究与发展 ›› 2021, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (2): 237-252.doi: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.2021.20200017

所属专题: 2021数据治理与数据透明专题

• 信息安全 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于区块链的数据透明化:问题与挑战

孟小峰1,刘立新1,2   

  1. 1(中国人民大学信息学院 北京 100872);2(内蒙古科技大学信息工程学院 内蒙古包头 014010) (xfmeng@ruc.edu.cn)
  • 出版日期: 2021-02-01
  • 基金资助: 
    国家自然科学基金项目(91646203,61941121,61532010,91846204,61532016)

Blockchain-Based Data Transparency: Issues and Challenges

Meng Xiaofeng1, Liu Lixin1,2   

  1. 1(School of Information, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872);2(School of Information Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou, Inner Mongolia 014010)
  • Online: 2021-02-01
  • Supported by: 
    This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (91646203, 61941121, 61532010, 91846204, 61532016).

摘要: 物联网、穿戴设备和移动通信等技术的高速发展促使数据源源不断地产生并汇聚至多方数据收集者,由此带来更严峻的隐私泄露问题, 然而传统的差分隐私、加密和匿名等隐私保护技术还不足以应对.更进一步,数据的自主汇聚导致数据垄断问题,严重影响了大数据价值实现.此外,大数据决策过程中,数据非真实产生、被篡改和质量管理过程中的单点失败等问题导致数据决策不可信.如何使这些问题得到有效治理,使数据被正确和规范地使用是大数据发展面临的主要挑战.首先,提出数据透明化的概念和研究框架,旨在增加大数据价值实现过程的透明性,从而为上述问题提供解决方案.然后,指出数据透明化的实现需求与区块链的特性天然契合,并对目前基于区块链的数据透明化研究现状进行总结.最后,对基于区块链的数据透明化可能面临的挑战进行分析.

关键词: 区块链, 问责, 隐私保护, 数据垄断, 数据驱动的决策

Abstract: With the high-speed development of Internet of things, wearable devices and mobile communication technology, large-scale data continuously generate and converge to multiple data collectors, which influences people’s life in many ways. Meanwhile, it also causes more and more severe privacy leaks. Traditional privacy aware mechanisms such as differential privacy, encryption and anonymization are not enough to deal with the serious situation. What is more, the data convergence leads to data monopoly which hinders the realization of the big data value seriously. Besides, tampered data, single point failure in data quality management and so on may cause untrustworthy data-driven decision-making. How to use big data correctly has become an important issue. For those reasons, we propose the data transparency, aiming to provide solution for the correct use of big data. Blockchain originated from digital currency has the characteristics of decentralization, transparency and immutability, and it provides an accountable and secure solution for data transparency. In this paper, we first propose the definition and research dimension of the data transparency from the perspective of big data life cycle, and we also analyze and summary the methods to realize data transparency. Then, we summary the research progress of blockchain-based data transparency. Finally, we analyze the challenges that may arise in the process of blockchain-based data transparency.

Key words: blockchain, accountability, privacy protection, data monopoly, data-driven decision-making

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