ISSN 1000-1239 CN 11-1777/TP

计算机研究与发展 ›› 2021, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (9): 1843-1855.doi: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.2021.20210367

所属专题: 2021量子计算专题

• 基础理论 • 上一篇    下一篇

量子错误缓解研究进展

张宇鹍1,2,袁骁3   

  1. 1(北京师范大学物理系 北京 100875);2(北京师范大学高等量子研究中心 北京 100875);3(北京大学前沿计算研究中心 北京 100080) (201821140038@mail.bnu.edu.cn)
  • 出版日期: 2021-09-01

Quantum Error Mitigation: A Review

Zhang Yukun1,2 Yuan Xiao3   

  1. 1(Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875);2(Center of Advanced Quantum Studies, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875);3(Center on Frontiers of Computer Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100080)
  • Online: 2021-09-01

摘要: 由于与环境的相互作用及对量子设备的控制中存在的偏差,量子设备总是在不断产生错误.若不对这些错误加以处理,错误的积累会使得量子算法的实施变得毫无意义.成熟量子计算机的实现依赖于量子纠错技术以纠正量子设备中的错误.然而,由于量子纠错开销巨大,其难以在近期量子设备中实现.故在有噪声中等尺寸量子时代,以变分量子求解器为代表的量子算法选择量子错误缓解技术来压制错误,而非纠正它们.量子错误缓解允许仅通过中等大小的额外资源获得可以接受的计算精读,并已在理论及实验上展示出其可行性.旨在介绍与总结量子错误缓解领域的最新进展,并展望该技术未来发展的前景与方向.

关键词: 量子计算, 近期量子设备, 量子错误缓解, 量子算法, 有噪声的中等尺寸量子时代

Abstract: Due to the interaction with the environment and imperfections of controls, quantum devices are accompanied with errors, whose accumulation could lead to a meaningless computing result. The realization of a full-fledged quantum computer relies on quantum error correction, which however, introduces a huge overhead that makes it challenging for near-term quantum devices. In the noisy intermediate-scale quantum era, quantum error mitigation methods instead of quantum error correction are introduced for suppressing errors. Using a mild cost under reasonable assumptions, quantum error mitigation could enhance the result to achieve a desired computational accuracy, and its feasibility has been demonstrated extensively in theories and experiments. This article aims to introduce and summarize the latest developments in quantum error mitigation, and to comment on potential future directions.

Key words: quantum computing, near-term quantum devices, quantum error mitigation, quantum algorithms, noisy intermediate-scale quantum era

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