ISSN 1000-1239 CN 11-1777/TP

计算机研究与发展 ›› 2021, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (9): 1875-1896.doi: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.2021.20210368

所属专题: 2021量子计算专题

• 基础理论 • 上一篇    下一篇

一种面向含噪中尺度量子技术的量子-经典异构计算系统

付祥1,郑宇真1,苏醒2,于锦涛3,徐炜遐1,吴俊杰1   

  1. 1(国防科技大学计算机学院量子信息研究所兼高性能计算国家重点实验室 长沙 410073);2(国防科技大学计算机学院 长沙 410073);3(数学工程与先进计算国家重点实验室 郑州 450001) (xiangfu@quanta.org.cn)
  • 出版日期: 2021-09-01
  • 基金资助: 
    国家自然科学基金项目(61902410);高性能计算国家重点实验自主课题(202001-01,202101-24)

A Heterogeneous Quantum-Classical Computing System Targeting Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum Technology

Fu Xiang1, Zheng Yuzhen1, Su Xing2, Yu Jintao3, Xu Weixia1, Wu Junjie1   

  1. 1(Institute for Quantum Information & State Key Laboratory of High Performance Computing, College of Computer Science and Technology, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073);2(College of Computer Science and Technology, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073);3(State Key Laboratory of Mathematical Engineering and Advanced Computing, Zhengzhou 450001)
  • Online: 2021-09-01
  • Supported by: 
    This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61902410) and the Autonomous Project of the State Key Laboratory of High Performance Computing (202001-01, 202101-24).

摘要: 量子计算有望加速解决经典计算难以解决的问题,如质因子分解、量子化学模拟等.已有单个量子系统可集成大于50个含噪声的固态量子比特,并在特定的计算任务上超越了经典计算机,标志含噪中尺度量子(noisy intermediate-scale quantum, NISQ)计算时代的到来.随着人们可在单个系统中集成越来越多的量子比特,如何将量子比特与控制硬件、软件开发环境、经典计算资源集成得到完整可用的量子计算系统,是一个有待进一步明确的问题.对比了量子计算与经典计算在控制及执行上的异同,并在此基础上提出了面向NISQ时代的量子-经典异构系统.以一个典型的NISQ算法(迭代相位估计算法)为例,介绍了量子算法从软件描述到硬件执行的整体流程,及与该过程相关的高级程序设计语言、编译器、量子软硬件接口和硬件等.在此基础上,讨论了流程中各个层次在NISQ时代面临的挑战.旨在从工程实现的视角,从宏观层面为读者(尤其是量子计算初学者)介绍量子计算系统,希望可以促进人们对NISQ时代下量子计算系统整体结构的理解,并激发更多相关研究.

关键词: 量子计算, 量子程序设计语言, 量子编译, 量子计算体系结构, 含噪中尺度量子

Abstract: Quantum computers promise to accelerate solving problems that are intractable by classical computers, such as prime factorization and quantum chemistry simulation. It has been demonstrated that a single quantum system can integrate more than fifty noisy solid-state qubits and surpass contemporary classical computers in specific computing tasks, marking the arrival of the noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) era. As more and more qubits can be integrated into a single system, how to integrate qubits with control hardware, software development environment, and classical computing resources to obtain a complete and usable quantum computing system is a problem that needs to be further clarified. By comparing both the control and execution of quantum and classical computing, this paper proposes a heterogeneous quantum-classical system targeting the NISQ technology. Taking a typical NISQ algorithm (the iterative phase estimation algorithm) as an example, this paper introduces the whole process of executing a quantum algorithm and related software and hardware, including the high-level programming language, compiler, quantum software and hardware interface, and control microarchitecture. On top of it, this paper discusses the challenges confronting each layer in the NISQ era. This paper aims to provide a general introduction of quantum computing systems to readers (especially beginners of quantum computing) from an engineering perspective, hoping to promote people’s understanding of the overall architecture of quantum computing systems in the NISQ era and stimulate more related research.

Key words: quantum computing, quantum programming language, quantum compilation, quantum computer architecture, noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ)

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