The rapid popularity of the Internet of things has caused the scale of data to rise geometrically. The method of processing data concentrated in the cloud center gradually has problems such as communication delay and privacy leakage. Edge computing sinks part of the cloud center business to the edge of the device enabling data processing to be completed on the terminal network, thereby achieving rapid data processing. At the same time, as long-distance communication is avoided, user data can be transferred locally, so that user privacy data can be safely protected. However, the change of network architecture puts forward new requirements for security protocols in the edge computing environment. The classification and summary of security protocols in the edge computing environment is helpful to relevant practitioners quickly grasp the research progress in this field, and it will also help beginners in the field of edge computing security to quickly understand the application methods of security protocols in this field. The typical research results of authentication protocols, key agreement protocols, privacy-preserving protocols, and data sharing protocols in the edge computing environment are reviewed, and each kind of security protocols is specifically classified, analyzed and summarized. The core problems of security protocols in the edge computing environment are given, and specific research directions and suggestions are given for each protocol field. The purpose of overall grasp of the research progress of security protocols in the current edge computing environment is achieved.