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    陈骁, 黄牧鸿, 田一凡, 王岩, 曹晟, 张小松. 基于分片区块链的车联网数据共享方案[J]. 计算机研究与发展. DOI: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.202330899
    引用本文: 陈骁, 黄牧鸿, 田一凡, 王岩, 曹晟, 张小松. 基于分片区块链的车联网数据共享方案[J]. 计算机研究与发展. DOI: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.202330899
    Chen Xiao, Huang Muhong, Tian Yifan, Wang Yan, Cao Sheng, Zhang Xiaosong. Internet of Vehicles Data Sharing Scheme via Blockchain Sharding[J]. Journal of Computer Research and Development. DOI: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.202330899
    Citation: Chen Xiao, Huang Muhong, Tian Yifan, Wang Yan, Cao Sheng, Zhang Xiaosong. Internet of Vehicles Data Sharing Scheme via Blockchain Sharding[J]. Journal of Computer Research and Development. DOI: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.202330899

    基于分片区块链的车联网数据共享方案

    Internet of Vehicles Data Sharing Scheme via Blockchain Sharding

    • 摘要: 高效安全的数据共享对于智能车联网的深度应用至关重要,在相互不信任的车辆之间实现可信的数据共享成为当前研究的热点. 区块链技术以其防篡改、可追溯等特点,成为支撑智能车联网数据共享流通的主要途径之一. 现有基于区块链的车联网数据共享方案,存在吞吐量小、安全性低等不足. 引入区块链分片方法,提出基于机器学习的分片算法,将地理位置相近的路侧单元(road side unit,RSU)划分到同一分片,并迭代单个分片的数据共享最优负载,降低了片内通信延迟进而提高了吞吐量,平衡了不同分片之间的数据共享负载. 为避免单个分片的贿赂攻击,提出了基于声誉的片内共识协议与监督人机制. 选举具有高声誉的路侧单元参与片内共识过程,并动态计算路侧单元的最新声誉. 设定声誉度高的路侧单元担任监督员,监督员可定期对不同分片产生的区块进行合法性验证. 通过性能评估和安全性分析,证明方案有助于提升智能车联网数据共享的高效性和安全性.

       

      Abstract: Efficient and secure data sharing is crucial for the profound application of the intelligent Internet of vehicles, where achieving trusted data sharing between mutually untrusting vehicles has become a major focus of current research. With the characteristics of tamper resistance and traceability, blockchain has emerged as a primary approach to support data circulation in the intelligent Internet of vehicles. Existing blockchain-based data-sharing solutions for the Internet of vehicles suffer from low throughput and security vulnerabilities. In this paper, the blockchain sharding approach is introduced, where a machine learning-based sharding algorithm is utilized to partition road side unit (RSU) with geographical proximity into the same shard and iteratively optimize data-sharing loads within individual shards. This algorithm reduces intra-shard communication latency and subsequently improves throughput while balancing the data-sharing loads among different shards. To prevent bribery attacks within a single shard, a reputation-based intra-shard consensus protocol and the supervisor mechanism are proposed. The proposed protocol involves the election of RSUs with high reputation to participate in the intra-shard consensus process and dynamically calculates the latest reputation of RSUs. High-reputation RSUs are designated supervisors and regularly verify the legitimacy of blocks generated in different shards. Performance evaluation and security analysis demonstrate the scheme enhances the efficiency and security of data sharing in the intelligent Internet of vehicles.

       

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