ISSN 1000-1239 CN 11-1777/TP

计算机研究与发展 ›› 2019, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (4): 677-691.doi: 10.7544/issn1000-1239.2019.20170985

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  1. 1(中国科学院大学 北京 100049); 2(计算机体系结构国家重点实验室(中国科学院计算技术研究所) 北京 100190) (
  • 出版日期: 2019-04-01
  • 基金资助: 

A Survey on Architecture Research of Novel Non-Volatile Memory Based on Dynamical Trade-Off

Zhang Mingzhe1,2, Zhang Fa2, Liu Zhiyong2   

  1. 1(University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049); 2(State Key Laboratory of Computer Architecture (Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences), Beijing 100190)
  • Online: 2019-04-01

摘要: 作为现有存储器的潜在替代技术,新型非易失存储器受到了来自学术界和工业界越来越多的关注.目前,制约新型非易失存储器广泛应用的主要问题包括写延迟长、写操作动态功耗高、写寿命有限等.针对这些问题,传统的解决方法是利用计算机体系结构的方法,通过增加层或者调度的方式加以避免或隐藏.但是,这类解决方案往往存在软硬件开销大、无法同时针对不同问题进行优化等问题.近年来,随着对新型非易失存储材料研究的深入,一系列器件自身所包含的动态权衡特性被陆续发现,这也为体系结构研究提供了新的机遇.基于这些器件自身的动态权衡特性,研究人员提出了一系列新的动态非易失存储器优化方案.与传统的优化方案相比,这类新型方案具有额外硬件开销小、可同时针对多个目标进行优化等优点.首先对非易失存储器存在的问题及传统的优化方案进行了概括;然后对非易失存储器件中3个重要的动态权衡关系进行了介绍;在此基础上,对近年来出现的一系列基于非易失存储器动态权衡特性的体系结构优化方案进行梳理;最后,对此类研究的特点进行了总结,并对未来的发展方向进行了展望.

关键词: 非易失存储器, 相变存储器, 自旋转移力矩存储器, 忆阻器, 动态权衡

Abstract: As a promising alternative candidate for DRAM, non-volatile memory (NVM) technique gains increasing interests from both industry and academia. Currently, the main problems that limit the wide utilization of NVM include considerable long latency for write operation, high energy consumption for write operation and limited write endurance. To solve these problems, the traditional solutions are based on computer architecture methods, such as adding extra level or scheduling scheme. Unfortunately, these solutions often suffer from unavoidable high soft/hardware overheads and can hardly optimize the architecture for more than one target at the same time. In recent years, as the improvement of research on non-volatile materials, several dynamical trade-offs lies in the materials are introduced, which also provides new opportunity for computer architecture research. Based on these trade-offs, several novel NVM architectures have been proposed. Compared with the traditional solutions, these proposed architectures have a series of advantages, such as low hardware overhead and the ability of optimizing for multi-targets. In this survey, we firstly introduce the existing problems of NVM and the traditional solutions. Then, we present three important dynamical trade-offs of NVM. After that, we introduce the newly proposed architectures based on these trade-offs. Finally, we make the conclusion for this kind of research work and point out some potential opportunities.

Key words: non-volatile memory (NVM), phase change memory, spin-transfer torque RAM, memristor, dynamical trade-off